Economic Development of Comecon Countries

Ramona Dumitriu, Razvan Stefanescu


In 1949, Soviet Union and some of its satellites created Comecon with the announced goal to facilitate economic cooperation between the socialist countries. The inefficiency of socialist systems affected the performances of Comecon members. However, the analysis of economic development from some of these countries should take into consideration the substantial subsidies received from other Comecon members.

Ключови думи

Economic Development; Comecon; Socialist Systems


Acemoglu, D., 2008. Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton University Press.

Adelman, I., 2000. The role of government in economic development, published in Foreign Aid and Development, Lessons learnt and directions for the future (edited by Finn Tarp), pp. 48-79.

Aharoni, Y., 2000. The performance of state-owned enterprises, published in The Rise and Fall of State-Owned Enterprise in The Western World (edited by Pier Angelo Tonineli), pp. 49-72.

Alkire, S., 2002. Dimensions of human development, World development, 30(2), pp. 181-205.

Allen, R. C., 2003. Farm to factory: A reinterpretation of the Soviet industrial revolution, Princeton University Press.

Andrei, Ş., Betea, L., 2011. I se spunea Machiavelli: Ştefan Andrei în dialog cu Lavinia Betea; stăpânul secretelor lui Ceauşescu, Editura Adevărul, Bucureşti.

Ausch, S., Bartha, F., 1968. Theoretical Problems Relating to Prices in Trade between the Comecon Countries, Soviet and Eastern European Foreign Trade, pp. 35-71.

Bădilă, A. I., 2012. The Romanian attitude towards Comecon (1959-1964), Research & Science Today, 1(3).

Balassa, B., 1992. Economic Integration in Eastern Europe, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 3(1), pp. 3-15.

Barro, R. J., Sala-i-Martin, X., 1992. Convergence, Journal of Political Economy, pp. 223-251.

Barro, R. J., Sala-i-Martin, X., 2004. Economic Growth, Second Edition, The MIT Press, Cambridge.

Baumol, W. J., 1986. Productivity growth, convergence, and welfare: what the long-run data show, The American Economic Review, pp. 1072-1085.

Berend, I. T., 1996. Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-1993: detour from the periphery to the periphery, Cambridge University Press.

Betea, L., Bîrlădeanu, A., 1997. Alexandru Bârlădeanu despre Dej, Ceauşescu şi Iliescu: convorbiri, Editura Evenimentul Românesc, Bucureşti.

Betea, L., Mănescu, C., 2001. Convorbiri neterminate: Corneliu Mănescu în dialog cu Lavinia Betea, Editura Polirom, Bucureşti.

Bideleux, R., Jeffries, I., 1998. A history of Eastern Europe: crisis and change (reprinted in 2005), Routledge, New York.

Birdsall, N., 1993. Social development is economic development, Policy Research Department of World Bank Publications, Working Paper No. 1123.

Birdsall, N., 2007. Income distribution: effects on growth and development, Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 118.

Brabant, J. M., 1988. Production specialization in the CMEA - concepts and empirical evidence, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 26(3), pp. 287-315.

Brucan, S., 1992. Generaţia irosită: memorii, Editura Univers, Bucureşti.

Bruno, M., 1992. Stabilization and reform in Eastern Europe: a preliminary evaluation, IMF Working Paper No. 92/30.

Cheremukhin, A., Golosov, M., Guriev, S., Tsyvinski, A., 2013. Was Stalin Necessary for Russia's Economic Development? CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP9669.

Cornia, G. A., Addison, T., Kiiski, S., 2003. Income distribution changes and their impact in the post-World War II period, WIDER Discussion Papers, World Institute for Development Economics (UNU-WIDER) No. 2003/28.

Crane, K., Skoller, D., 1988. Specialization Agreements in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (No. RAND/R-3518), RAND Corporation, Santa Monica.

Dobb, M., 2012. Soviet economic development since 1917, Sixth Revised Edition, Routledge, New York.

Dollar, D., Kraay, A., 2002. Growth is Good for the Poor, Journal of Economic Growth, 7(3), pp. 195-225.

Dumitrescu I.C., 2015. Inexistenţa unui Plan Valev în 1964, Revista Historia No. 160.

Dumitriu, R., Stefanescu, R., 2013. External Debt Management in Romania, Vanguard Scientific Instruments in Management No. 2(7)/2013, 47-56.

Easterlin, R. A., 1995. Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 27(1), 35-47.

Easterlin, R. A., 2000. The worldwide standard of living since 1800, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7-2

Easterlin, R. A., Angelescu, L., 2012. Modern economic growth and quality of life: cross-Sectional and time series evidence, IZA Discussion Paper No. 2755.

Easterly, W., Fischer, S., 1994. What we can learn from the Soviet collapse, Finance and Development, 31(4), 2-5.

Feinsilver, J. M., Apter, D. E., 1993. Healing the masses: Cuban health politics at home and abroad, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Gardner, B., Lerman, Z., 2006. Agricultural cooperative enterprise in the transition from socialist collective farming, Journal of rural cooperation, 34(1), 1.

Goldman, M. I., 1983. USSR in Crisis: the Failure of an Economic System, Norton.

Gomulka, S., 1983. Industrialization and the rate of growth: Eastern Europe 1955-75, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, pp. 388-396.

Graziani, G., 1981. Dependency structures in COMECON, Review of Radical Political Economics, 13(1), pp. 67-75.

Grzybowski, K., 1971. Foreign Trade Regime in the Comecon Countries Today, The NYU Journal of International Law and Politics, 4, 183.

Hankiss, E., 1990. East European Alternatives (pp. 226-9), Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hare, P., 1987. Economic reform in Eastern Europe, Journal of Economic Surveys, 1(1-2), pp. 25-58.

Herman, S., 1951. War Damage and Nationalization in Eastern Europe, Law and Contemporary Problems, pp. 498-518.

Hewett, E. A., 2011. Foreign trade prices in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, Cambridge University Press.

Hoya, T. W., 1970. The Comecon General Conditions - A Socialist Unification of International Trade Law, Columbia Law Review, pp. 253-305.

Hoyt, R. E., 1983. Winners and losers in East-West trade: a behavioral analysis of US-Soviet détente (1970-1980), Praeger Publishers.

Hutchings, R. L., 1983. Soviet-East European relations: consolidation and conflict, 1968-1980, University of Wisconsin Press.

Jowitt, K., 1971. Revolutionary breakthroughs and national development: the case of Romania, 1944-1965, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Kansikas, S., 2014. Acknowledging economic realities, The CMEA policy change vis-à-vis the European Community, 1970–3, European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire, 21(2), pp. 311-328.

Kligman, G., Verdery, K., 2011. Peasants under siege: the collectivization of Romanian agriculture, 1949-1962, Princeton University Press.

Kniivilä, M., 2007. Industrial development and economic growth: Implications for poverty reduction and income inequality, Industrial Development for the 21st Century: Sustainable Development Perspectives, pp. 295-333.

Knight, A., 1995. Beria: Stalin's first lieutenant, Princeton University Press.

Kolakowski, L., 1978. Main currents of Marxism (Vol. 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kornai, J., 1980. The dilemmas of a socialist economy: the Hungarian experience, Cambridge Journal of Economics, pp. 147-157.

Kornai, J., 1982. Growth, Shortage, and Efficiency: A Macrodynamic Model of the Socialist Economy, University of California Press.

Kornai, J., 1992. The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism: The Political Economy of Communism, Oxford University Press.

Krueger, A. O., 1990. Government failures in development, NBER Working Paper No. 3340.

Kuznets, S., 1955. Economic growth and income inequality, The American Economic Review, 1-28.

Lavigne, M., 1983. The Soviet Union inside Comecon, Europe-Asia Studies, 35(2), pp. 135-153.

Leffler, M. P., Westad, O. A., 2010. The Cambridge History of the Cold War (Vol. 1), Cambridge University Press.

Mansell, R., Wehn, U., 1998. Knowledge societies: Information technology for sustainable development, United Nations Publications.

Marx, K., 1859. A contribution to the critique of political economy, Progress Publishers, Moscow (published in 1993).

Mastny, V., 1998. The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years, Oxford University Press.

Minard, L., Michaels, J., 1982. Why Workers Won’t Work in the Soviet Union, Forbes, 130(12), pp. 138-144.

Montias, J. M., 1964. Background and Origins of the Rumanian Dispute with COMECON, Europe-Asia Studies, 16(2), pp. 125-151.

Mureşan, M., 2008. Romania’s Integration in COMECON, The Analysis of a Failure, The Romanian Economic Journal, 11, pp. 27-58.

Murphy, K. M., Shleifer, A., Vishny, R. W., 1988. Industrialization and the big push, The Journal of Political Economy, 97(5), pp. 1003-1026.

Neagoe - Plesa, E., 2005. Rolul lui Gheorghe Gheorghiu - Dej în elaborarea politicii externe şi în direcţionarea relaţiilor româno-sovietice (1960-1965), Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Historica, (9/I), pp. 231-240.

Niculescu - Mizil, P., 1997. O istorie trăită. Editura Enciclopedica, Bucureşti.

Ofer, G., 1987. Soviet economic growth: 1928-1985, Journal of Economic Literature, 1767-1833.

Pérez - López, J. F., 1988. Cuban-Soviet sugar trade: price and subsidy issues, Bulletin of Latin American Research, pp. 123-147.

Peters, P., 2002. Survival Story: Cuba’s Economy in the Post-Soviet Decade, Lexington Institute.

Poznanski, K., 1993. An interpretation of communist decay: The role of evolutionary mechanisms, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 26(1), pp. 3-24.

Pryor, F. L., 2014. The red and the green: the rise and fall of collectivized agriculture in Marxist regimes, Princeton University Press.

Quah, D. T., 1996. Empirics for economic growth and convergence, European Economic Review, 40(6), pp. 1353-1375.

Ramirez, A., Ranis, G., Stewart F., 1997. Economic growth and human development, QEH Working Paper No. 18.

Ransom, C. F., 1971. The Future of EEC-COMECON Relations, The World Today, pp. 438-448.

Rosenstein - Rodan, P., 1943. Problems of Industrialization of Eastern and South-eastern Europe, The Economic Journal, 53, pp. 202-211.

Saviotti, P. P., Pyka, A., 2004. Economic development, qualitative change and employment creation. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 15(3), pp. 265-287.

Saxonberg, S., 2001. The Fall: A Comparative Study of the End of Communism in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary and Poland (reprinted in 2003), Routledge, New York.

Scânteia, 1964. Declaraţia cu privire la poziţia Partidului Muncitoresc Român în problemele mişcării comuniste şi muncitoreşti internaţionale, Bucureşti.

Schultz, A., 1971. Comprehensive Program for the Further Intensification and Improvement of Collaboration and the Development of Socialist Economic Integration of COMECON Member Nations, Soviet and Eastern European Foreign Trade, pp. 187-305.

Sen, A., 2001. Development as freedom, Oxford University Press.

Shirley, M. M., 1983. Managing state-owned enterprises (Vol. 1), World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 577, Washington: World Bank.

Solow, R. M., 1956. A contribution to the theory of economic growth, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp. 65-94.

Staar, R. F., 1982. Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, Fourth Edition, Hoover Press.

Suslov, I. F., 1967. Economic problems of development of collective farms, Moskva: Ekonomika.

Szelenyi, I., 1978. Social inequalities in state socialist redistributive economies, Published in Policy Research (edited by Amitai Etzioni).

Tismăneanu, V., 2002. Gheorghiu - Dej and the Romanian Workers' Party: From De-Sovietization to the Emergence of National Communism, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Tismăneanu, V., 2014. Carta stalinismului naţional: Declaraţia PMR din aprilie, Studii şi materiale de istorie contemporană (SMIC), (1), pp. 23-30.

Todaro, M. P., Smith, S. C., 2012. Economic development, Eleventh Edition, Addison-Wesley, Boston.

UNDP, 1990. Human Development Report 1990, New York, Oxford University Press.

United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2015. ERS International Macroeconomic Data Set

Valev, E. B., 1964. Problemele dezvoltării economice a raioanelor dunărene din România, Bulgaria şi URSS, Vestnik Moskovskogo University, „V. M. Lomonosov“ from Moscow, No. 2/1964, translated in „Viața Economică”, No. 24/12 June 1964, Bucharest.

Veenhoven, R., Hagerty, M., 2006. Rising happiness in nations 1946–2004: A reply to Easterlin, Social Indicators Research, 79(3), pp. 421-436.

Wiles, P. J., Markowski, S., 1971. Income Distribution under Communism and Capitalism, Some Facts about Poland, the UK, the USA and the USSR, Europe - Asia Studies, 22(3), pp. 344-369.

World Bank, 2015. The World Bank DataBank.

Zubok, V. M., 2009. A failed empire: the Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev, Univ. of North Carolina Press.